X and y theory in management. Topics on the PMP: McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y 2019-01-17

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Theory X and Theory Y

x and y theory in management

Thus, he encouraged cordial team relations, responsible and stimulating jobs, and participation of all in decision-making process. Theory Z stresses the need to help workers become generalists, rather than specialists. Micromanagement in a Theory Y setting is not only unnecessary, but it can actually be counterproductive to the goal of keeping employees happy and driven to be successful. McGregor's ideas significantly relate to modern understanding of the Psychological Contract, which provides many ways to appreciate the unhelpful nature of X-Theory leadership, and the useful constructive beneficial nature of Y-Theory leadership. The basic deficiency with earlier approaches is that they did not recognize the variability in tasks and people which produces this complexity. Theory X will sooner be implemented in industrial organizations where activities revolve around a high degree of productivity.

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McGregor's XY Theory of Management

x and y theory in management

In her off-time, Tyler enjoys spending as much time as possible with her two amazing kids and husband. Thus, for example, the people in the Akron plant seemed to be very different from those in the Stockton laboratory in their underlying attitudes toward uncertainty, authority, and relationships with their peers. Theory X assumes that employees dislike work; they want to avoid it and do not want to take responsibility. Managers can start this process by considering how certain the task is, how frequently feedback about task performance is available, and what goals are implicit in the task. Please use it as such. Implications of Theory X and Theory Y Quite a few organizations use Theory X today. Unlike, decentralisation of authority is presumed in theory Y, which involves employees participation in management and decision-making.

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McGregor's Theory

x and y theory in management

American social psychologist, Douglas McGregor, created two different theories on human motivation and management in the 1960s: Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X assumes that employees are lazy, unmotivated, and will do anything to avoid working. Concluding Note The reader will recognize that the complexity we have described is not of our own making. You can also find us on , and. The hard approach to motivation relies on coercion, implicit threats, micromanagement, and tight controls— essentially an environment of command and control.

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Difference Between Theory X and Theory Y

x and y theory in management

There is little delegation of authority and control remains firmly centralized. The use of this material is free for learning and education purpose. What are the characteristics of a Theory X manager? People can focus on the objectives they pursue through self-direction and self-control. This was essential, given the nature of their task. We will also discuss one of the most successful approaches to managing people in the workplace.

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McGregor's XY Theory

x and y theory in management

Many organisations are now taking the enlightened view of theory Y. However, beyond this commonality, the attitudes and assumptions they embody are quite different. Employees in this setting feel pressured and micromanaged, as they know that they need to perform consistently or risk being replaced. Theory Y Theory Y expounds a participative style of management that is de-centralized. In order to get the best out of the employees, plenty of management is necessary, meaning the structure of the business can become quite top-heavy.

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Theory Y Manager: Characteristics, Overview

x and y theory in management

Because managers and supervisors are in almost complete control of the work, this produces a more systematic and uniform product or work flow. Maslow's hierarchy of needs consist of physiological needs lowest level , safety needs, love needs, esteem needs, and highest level. Therefore, the system of rewards and punishments works best for them. The test is a simple reflective tool, not a scientifically validated instrument; it's a learning aid and broad indicator. Does higher sense of competence motivation result from effective unit performance or from fit? Managers of Theory Y employees should let their employees have more freedom.

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What is theory X and theory Y? definition and meaning

x and y theory in management

With the onslaught of B2B social media, and the break down of formal business approach, business is also being conducted more around Theory Y than old school Theory X. Context refers to the environment in which managers and employees are interacting with their surroundings and few would argue that context has not changed considerably over the past 50 years. It is important to note, however, that before an employee carries out their task, they must first obtain the manager's approval. Their traits include: self-starting, self-motivating, self-disciplined and well-organized. And this is really the essence of managing upwards X theory managers - focus and get agreement on the results and deadlines - if you consistently deliver, you'll increasingly be given more leeway on how you go about the tasks, which amounts to more freedom. The soft approach results in a growing desire for greater reward in exchange for diminished work output. This might apply if you have a department which is focused on being creative, such as your marketing team.

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McGregor's XY Theory of Management

x and y theory in management

According to McGregor, the perception of managers on the nature of individuals is based on various assumptions. Employees who are viewed in this framework are happy to come to the office each day, they look forward to the chance to deliver quality work, and they take responsibility for the role they play in the organization. Two of these performed the relatively certain task of manufacturing standardized containers on high-speed, automated production lines. And this is what we did find. It is one of four important motivation theories you will need to know for the exam. Theory Y As you would expect, Theory Y sees motivation in the opposite manner of Theory X. While these notions may have been relevant during that particular period they have fallen somewhat out of favor in todays flexible and mobile job markets.

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Difference Between Theory X and Theory Y

x and y theory in management

Competence Motivation Because of the difference in organizational characteristics at Akron and Stockton, the two sites were strikingly different places in which to work. Tailoring the approach of your management team to the needs and motivation levels of various departments is a strategy that should pay off in the long run. However, employees are still expected to have specialized career responsibilities. The democratic approach of Theory Y makes people feel comfortable as a result of which they commit themselves wholeheartedly to the organization. Employees additionally tend to take full responsibility for their work and do not need close supervision to create a quality product. How to cite this article: Mulder, P.

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Difference Between Theory X and Theory Y

x and y theory in management

This question of has been studied by management theorists and social psychologists for decades, in attempts to identify successful approaches to management. The strength of the contingency approach we have outlined is that it begins to provide a way of thinking about this complexity, rather than ignoring it. People who lack food or water cannot attend to justice or beauty. They also described the type of supervision in the plant as being relatively directive. Their logical capabilities should be fully utilized. Using this theory in these types of work conditions allows employees to specialize in particular work areas which in turn allows the company to mass-produce a higher quantity and quality of work. The study design is summarized in Exhibit I.

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