They are called the Upper Creeks. This money was a considerable part of the revenue for the tribes and was used by their legislatures for the support of schools and their governments. In 1832, some of the Seminole leaders signed a treaty and promised to relocate. It seemed as though the president and white miners and settlers would never stop until the land was theirs for the taking. The Indian clans came together to form tribes, each tribe had a leader called a chief, the decisions of the tribe were made by tribal councils where representatives from different tribes met. The rapid settlement of land east of the made it clear by the mid-1820s that the white man would not tolerate the presence of even peaceful Indians there.
The act authorized the president to grant tribes unsettled western prairie land in exchange for their desirable territories within state borders especially in the Southeast , from which the tribes would be removed. Andrew Jackson was able to convince the American people that Indians could not coexist peacefully with them. They were forced to sighn the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek after fierce fighting with the United States army. This land was home to the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chicasaw, Seminole, and Creek nations. Some eventually committed arson and murder in retaliation for their brutal treatment. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That it shall and may be lawful for the President of the United States to cause so much of any territory belonging to the United States, west of the river Mississippi, not included in any state or organized territory, and to which the Indian title has been extinguished, as he may judge necessary, to be divided into a suitable number of districts, for the reception of such tribes or nations of Indians as may choose to exchange the lands where they now reside, and remove there; and to cause each of said districts to be so described by natural or artificial marks, as to be easily distinguished from every other.
To promote this disposition to exchange lands, which they have to spare and we want, for necessaries, which we have to spare and they want, we shall push our trading uses, and be glad to see the good and influential individuals among them run in debt, because we observe that when these debts get beyond what the individuals can pay, they become willing to lop them off by a cession of lands. Cherokee Trail of Tears The Removal Act paved the way for the reluctant, and often forcible, emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West. Interpretive Sign at the Stones River National Battlefield in Murfreesboro, Tennessee The Cherokee passed through Murfreesboro on the Trail of Tears in 1838, following what's now Old Nashville Pike, which lies beyond the rail fence. While it did not authorize the forced removal of the indigenous tribes, it authorized the President to negotiate land exchange treaties with tribes located in lands of the United States. Michael Grossberg, Christopher Tomlins, eds.
These tribes agreed to accept the treaties mostly for strategic reasons. Eager for land to raise cotton, the settlers pressured the federal government to acquire Indian territory. Their protests did not save the southeastern nations from removal, however. During the 1810's to 1830's, John C. A Cherokee Indian named Sequoya introduced a system of writing for the Cherokee language in 1821 also. Here the Choctaws located in Mississippi ceded their land east of the river there in exchange for land in the West and payment. Some struggled with crops and became fairly prosperous.
From 1814 to 1824, Jackson was instrumental in negotiating nine out of eleven treaties which divested the southern tribes of their eastern lands in exchange for lands in the west. Americans were already swayed by arguments based on stereotypes of Indians as hostile, savage, wandering people. He suggested that laws be past so that the Indians would have to move west of the Mississippi river. The target was the lands inhabited by the. Green, The Cherokee Removal: A Brief History with Documents, 2nd ed. The law enabled the president to forcibly remove the natives from their ancestral lands.
The Indian Removal Act should never have passed, as it was problematic… Indian Removal Zinn Chapter 7 Once the white men decided that they wanted lands belonging to the Native Americans Indians , the United States Government did everything in its power to help the white men acquire Indian land. By opening the whole territory between Tenesee on the north and Louisiana on the south to the settlement of the whites it will incalcuably strengthen the Southwestern frontier and render the adjacent states strong enough to repel future invasion without remote aid. The Chickisaw and the Choctaw owned their lands jointly because they were so closely related but the tribes still exercised jurisdiction over its own territory though. Tim Alan Garrison, The Legal Ideology of Removal: The Southern Judiciary and the Sovereignty of Native American Nations Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2002. They were not allowed time to gather their belongings, and as they left, whites looted their homes.
You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Most Indians focused on the simple things in life like building houses, making clothes, and gathering food. It gave the president power to negotiate removal treaties with Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi. While the terms of the act may sound relatively benign on the surface, it was part of a larger government policy known informally as Indian Removal, which was designed to push Native Americans off their tribal lands. Those wishing to remain in the east would become citizens of their home state. The Challenge of Eurocentrism: Global Perspectives, Policy, and Prospects. President Jackson's attitude toward the Native American tribes was patronizing and paternalistic.
The law authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate with Indians for their removal to federal land west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their homelands. This area was home to the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chicasaw and Seminole nations. Most homes on Indian reservations are crowded. Future United States President Abraham Lincoln also strongly opposed the 1830 Indian Removal Act. The lands were sold by government officials, however, and the money deposited in the U. In the end, most of the Seminoles moved to the new territory. President assumed the Calhoun—Monroe policy and was determined to remove the Indians by non-forceful means, but Georgia refused to submit to Adams' request, forcing Adams to make a treaty with the Cherokees granting Georgia the Cherokee lands.
Thousands of lives were lost in the war, which cost the Jackson administration approximately 40 to 60 million dollars -- ten times the amount it had allotted for Indian removal. In 1814 he commanded the U. After Removal: The Choctaw in Mississippi. However, a major obstacle stood in the way of expansion: Native American tribes. A month later, the Jacksonians finally won the fight when the act passed the House by an even narrower 6-vote margin, 103 to 97, on May 26. The Seminoles, however, held their ground and remained in the South.
It lasted for seven years. Archived from the original on August 17, 2007. The tribes hoped to appease the United States government and hoped to retain some of their land while protecting themselves from white American harassment. The removal act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson under the belief and goal that it would be beneficial to the Indians and save them. They started the Second Seminole war 1835. Andrew Jackson, from Tennessee, was a forceful proponent of Indian removal.