Germany had allied itself with Russia and Austria-Hungary in the , but Austria-Hungary and Russia were not the best of friends, partly because they were at odds over the Balkans and partly because Russia represented the Pan-Slavic movement, whose program threatened the very existence of Austria-Hungary. The defeat of Russia in the Sino-Japanese War of 1904-05 prompted a reappraisal of Russia. Both nations vowed to respect Persian independence, which they had been stepping on for years. More serious still were the Balkan crises brought about by the annexation of by Austria-Hungary in 1908, the Italo-Turkish War 1911—12 , and the 1912—13. Triple Alliance, secret agreement between , , and formed in May 1882 and renewed periodically until. The trouble between Austria and Serbia reached a peak after the assassination of Archduke in 1914, and resulted. Germany too had ulterior motives in creating and remaining in the Triple Alliance.
The second article of the Franco-British Declaration talks about France and Great Britain's agreement on Morocco. The German commercial rivalry with not only brought direct trouble but nourished German desire for sea power and a large navy. Consequently, his efforts were designed to keep France diplomatically isolated. In an attempt to stop Russia from allying with France, Bismarck signed the secret with Russia in 1887. By terms of this originally secret treaty, each state was to help the other against an attack by any other state than Russia. In 1881, the French occupied Tunisia, which the Italians also coveted.
Although they decided to join together, it wasn't necessarily because they liked eachother, but rather that they had a common goal to deter Germany from increasing its military buildup even further. Nifty map of the divisions of alliances before World War 1. In the telegram, Zimmermann proposed a deal with Mexico. It almost led to a shooting war over Russian aid to Serbia. Germany and Austria-Hungary were already allies by 1879 when, worried about a threat from Russia, they formed the Dual Alliance.
He promised that if Mexico joined Germany in the war, Mexico would receive New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona after a German victory. The decline of Bismarck's European order: Franco-Russian relations, 1875-1890 1979. Moreover, the various earlier agreements between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia were not renewed in 1890, which seemed to leave Russia vulnerable. A year later, the Russian and French general staffs drew up a draft convention for mutual military aid. But after the defeat of Russia in the , and particularly after gained influence in the British foreign office, Britain came to favor a friendly settlement. Franceand Italy were also rivals for imperial influence in northernAfrica, which is why Italy allied itself with Germany and Austria. The Entente Cordiale ended up bringing the two countries closer.
By 1907, Foreign Minister negotiated Britain into the Triple Entente, and united three old enemies. By 1914, then, the three nations of the Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy - stood against the three nations of the Triple Entente - France, Russia, and Great Britain. The Triple Alliance It all began with Bismarck trying to isolate the French, so they would not be able to form an alliance and consider a war to recover Alsace-Lorraine. In turn, prominent French and British journalists, academics and parliamentarians found the reactionary tsarist regime distasteful. The Triple Entente The main fear of the French was of having to fight alone against Germany. Albertini, The Origins of the War of 1914, Vol. The Kaiser decided to convince the French that the Anglo-French Entente was useless to them.
The German chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, then created an intricate diplomatic network of alliances and treaties to ensure peace. Illustration from Neil Demarco's The Great War Triple Entente Resources in 1914. After this success, his main purpose was to safeguard his new creation. Italy was in fact a rival of Austria-Hungary in the Balkans and particularly for control of the Adriatic; moreover, there remained unsettled territorial problems see. The Entente Cordiale stopped short, however, of guaranteeing military support from either side.
The Diplomacy of Imperialism: 1890-1902 1950 pp 3—66. In contrast to the Triple Alliance, the terms of the Entente did not require each country to go to war on behalf of the others, but stated that they had a 'moral ' to support each other. The understanding between the three powers, supplemented by agreements with and , was a powerful counterweight to the of , , and. Tensions grew rapidly as countries snapped up any territory they could get their hands on, built massive armies and navies, identified their enemies, and prepared for the huge war that was looking more likely every day. However, the Triple Entente, unlike the Triple Alliance or the Franco-Russian Alliance, was not an alliance of mutual defense.
On November 1, 1902, five months after the Triple Alliance was renewed, Italy reached an understanding with that each would remain neutral in the event of an attack on the other. Though there was no alliance, the Entente Cordiale—a friendly understanding—was arrived at in 1904. As a result of the failure of the Reinsurance Treaty to be renewed, Russia hastily made an alliance with France, fearing her own diplomatic isolation, forging it in ink in 1894. The conflict, continually pulling in more countries, had two allied groups at its center: the German Triple Alliance, and Great Britain's Triple Entente. Initially, the British approached the Germans with a view to an alliance against Russia in Asia. The Triple Alliance On one side, we have Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, which formed the Triple Alliance. The British, regarding this as a plot to spli the allies in the Anglo-French Entente, refused to agree.