Protection of Human Rights, Issue of Climatic Change, Environment Protection Ethnic Conflicts, Sustainable Development and others. Theory must be supplemented by philosophy. Edmund Burke 1729-1797 called civil society as little platoons within the entire and huge structure of political organisation. Integration- interdisciplinary approach Contributions: a. Economic and social functions of government.
David Held has viewed politics or political science in a different way. The nature of political theory can also be understood from the kind of issues it has been grappling with during the long span of more than 2300 years. Political theory seeks to understand, explain and analyse the political phenomena and prescribe ways and means to rectify the shortcomings. It not only involves explanation, description and prescription regarding the state and political institutions but also evaluation of their moral philosophical purpose. This observation is laconic in nature and therefore requires elaboration.
In like manner, rights of the individuals and sovereignty of the State and their corelationship. Study of Comparative Politics, International Politics, and Public Administration: In its modern form, the scope of Political Science involves a study of comparative politics Comparative study of the nature and working of political systems in all countries of the world , International Politics Struggle for Power and relations among nations which constitute the International Community , and Public Administration Study of the process of affecting decisions and policies of the government i. Such type of incident is regarded as aberration in the whole gamut of political science. Political science is thus a study of the state in the past, present and future of political organization, political processes and political functions of political institutions and political theories. A state cannot exist without government.
Political Scientists and researchers collect data and facts from numerous sources and then analyse them. The answer may be both positive and negative and because of this controversy we refrain ourselves from taking any side. In fact the state, which belongs to political science, is the final determiner of various political decisions and policies and all these are implemented by the state officials. We find a number of ideologies in the modern world such as liberalism, Marxism, socialism etc. The study of political theory through scientific method instead of philosophical and based upon facts rather than on values has long history but the credit for making significant developments in this connection goes to the American social scientists. One is data or fact. In general sociology the main aim is to formulate general social laws.
For all these reasons politics and political philosophy were almost treated identically. According to Van Dyke political theory also includes suggestion, recommendations and advices given by political scientists. Nature of Political Science There are different views on the nature of politics Aristotle, Bodin, Hobbes, Bluntschli, Montesquieu, few is, Sedgwick, Jellinek, etc, hold that politics is a science. Today the definition is not confined within a limited sphere or few notions. But it is to be noted here that the contributions of all disciplines are not equal or identical. Sociological approach- this approach emphasizes that social context is necessary for the understanding and explanation of political behavior of the members of the community. Study of voting behaviour, political participation, leadership behaviour, elite behaviour, mass politics, populism etc.
The main thrust of the new view is the treatment of politics as an activity and a process. Modern political theory starts from individualism and made liberty of the individual as the basic issue. This Greek tradition passed through ages and in this way politics has come to be known as art of government. That is only through the exercise of power and influence an individual or organisation can get what he it wants. According to Gettell political science is a historical investigation of what the state has been, an analytical study of what the state is and a politico - ethical discussion of what the state should be. Study of the past, present and future of development- political science attempts to explain the meaning and the essential nature of the state and deals with the laws of its progress and development within itself and in relation to international organizations and other states.
The distinction between political philosophy and political theory is explained by the fact that whereas a political philosopher is a political theorist, but a political theorist may not necessarily be a political philosopher. Could it matter whether we humans care about or are otherwise attached to other kinds of individuals? No modem state can be effectively administered without economics and political science. Classical theorists repeatedly asked questions like: Who should rule and why; what is the best form of government? After the Second World War 193-9-1945 a very good number of political scientists of United States applied number of scientific methods for the investigation and analysis of political matters incidents and issues and after that they framed models and concepts and all these have finally constituted body of political science. But the extent of this contribution cannot be assessed in a definite way. Before Machiavelli 1469-1527 politics was largely dominated by theology and in most of the cases politics struggled hard to establish its special and separate identity. Political relations are being conditioned and guided by economic relations. There are number of exponents of this concept and most renowned of them are Harold Lasswell and Kaplan.
Could that determine whether they fall within the scope of political obligation? Mill, Herbert Spencer and a host of other writers. It classified the same into four zones, namely, Political Theory, Political Institution, Political Dynamics and International Relations. For example in many parts of the world particularly in the states of Third World the criminalization of politics, is assuming alarming dimension and in this arena no government can sit idly. Political philosophy seeks rational explanations. Hill, Maitland, Collin, Barker, etc, maintain that is only on art.
These institutes are run and managed by government and non-governmental organisations. As a result of this, non-formal institutions like pressure groups, public opinion, interest groups, political parties etc. It examines how man should adjust himself with the society. If this is the position there is no reason to refuse to call it a science subject. He studied these constitutions extensively. It seeks to explain differences between as well as similarities among countries.
Study of state and government it deals with the nature and formation of the State and tries to understand various forms and functions of the government. Associated with this is our desire to use the subject and also our goal. Political science as a discipline deals with various aspects like: a. Moreover, any political scientist or researcher of social problem does not take rest by analysing the issues or problems He prescribes certain recommendations. Besides public affairs there are number of affairs which may be called private and these are activities of various social, political and cultural groups, business organisations, clubs, pressure groups etc. The study of political science has to predict the future of the state that is how it ought to be. In past there were gulf of differences between political science and physical science.