Urine formation in mammals. Chapter 29 Kidney and Excretion 2 Flashcards 2019-01-14

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Mammals

urine formation in mammals

However, this region plays a significant role in the maintenance of high osmolarity of medullary interstitial fluid. The kidneys filter up to 150 quarts of blood to produce 1 to 2 quarts of urine each day. The urinary system is regulated by the by such as , , and. These processes are summarised in diagram 12. These salts are removed through the use of the kidneys whereby they help the fish retain water and actively excrete salts to produce a very concentrated urine. A fabulous drawing of the kidney and nephron to print off, label and colour in with clear explanation of function.

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Excretory System

urine formation in mammals

If this hole is later filled with other minerals, it is a cast. The pH of human urine ranges from 5. Generally, within fish, the kidney is located towards the very middle of the fish both lengthwise and heightwise. The volume of the tubular fluid is reduced, and the fluid remains similar to the blood plasma in its osmotic pressure and NaCl concentration. As blood courses through the glomeruli, much of its fluid, containing both useful chemicals and dissolved waste materials, soaks out of the blood through the membranes by osmosis and diffusion where it is filtered and then flows into the Bowman's capsule. The Medulla one 'layer' out from the pelvis which consists of several lobes lying around the circumference of the pelvis. Finally, anything that needs to be shipped right out of the body is secreted out.

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What Is the Pathway of Urine As It Flows Through the Body?

urine formation in mammals

This chemical change is an expression of diagenesis. Some cancers also target the urinary system, including , , , and. The value of urine as a diagnostic aid has been known to the world of medicine since as far back as the time of Hippocrates. Through the use of both active and passive transport of materials within the kidney; blood can be filtered so that the good materials can be separated from the bad materials. In other words the body fluids of fresh water fish are hypertonic to the water see chapter 3. This is most easily diagnosed by testing for.

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Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Urinary System

urine formation in mammals

The exact proportion depends on the type of animal, its age, sex, health and whether or not it has had sufficient to drink. The fluid flows to a looped portion of the tubule called the Loop of Henle where water is reabsorbed and then to another coiled part of the tubule distal convoluted tubule where more reabsorbtion and secretion takes place. Smaller animals are more able than large ones to avoid extremes of temperature or dry conditions by resting in sheltered more humid situations during the day and being active only at night. An internal mold is formed when sediments or minerals fill the internal cavity of an organism, such as the inside of a bivalve or snail. This also means that saltwater fish do not urinate as much excrement as does freshwater fish. In humans, uric acid is not produced from ammonia but is synthesized from adenine and guanine found in various nucleotides. Obviously no one ever excretes anywhere near 180 liters of urine per day! Gout is probably caused by a variety of inborn errors of metabolism resulting in excessive synthesis of uric acid.

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Why do mammals urinate while birds and reptiles(?) don't? (Page 1)

urine formation in mammals

Uric Acid Excretion: In animals that excrete urea, water is required to dissolve urea in urine. Mechanisms of Secretion The mechanisms by which secretion occurs are similar to those of reabsorption, however these processes occur in the opposite direction. . . This amount varies according to fluid intake and kidney function.

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What are the five steps for urine formation

urine formation in mammals

The of urine tends to mirror the water needs of the organism. The wastes are removed as urine. Colors of urine definitely indicate chemical differences relative to normal urine but aren't always an indication of illness. The major waste products in mammals are carbon dioxide that is removed by the lungs, and urea that is produced when excess amino acids from proteins are broken down. A colour change occurs in the presence of an abnormal ingredient. An artery from the dorsal aorta called the renal artery supplies blood to them and the renal vein drains them.


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Animal Physiology 4e

urine formation in mammals

The processes that take place in them are upset if the temperature is too high or too low, or if the fluid around or inside them is too acid or alkaline. Remember, as the blood flows through the body, wastes resulting from the metabolism of foodstuffs in the body cells are deposited into the bloodstream, and this waste must be disposed of in some way. Reabsorbed fluids, ions, and molecules are returned to the bloodstream through the peri-tubular capillaries, and are not excreted as urine. The following calculations may help you visualize how enormous this volume is. Nephridia help to remove nitrogenous wastes and maintain a fluid and ionic balance. Within mammals, deamination takes place within the liver and involves removing Nitrogen from the amino acids. Therefore, the amount of salt excreted in the urine increases.


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Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Urinary System

urine formation in mammals

Liver cirrhosis caused by alcoholism creates an interference in the enzymes which produce carbamyl phosphate in the first step on the cycle. Urine is a waste byproduct formed from excess water and metabolic waste molecules during the process of renal system filtration. Tropical wave trough or low pressure system. In the human urinary system there are two kidneys that are located between the dorsal body wall and parietal peritoneum on both the left and right sides. Two of the known mechanisms of producing hyperosmotic urine, however, enable insects to reabsorb water in excess of solutes. Blood entering the glomerulus has filterable and non-filterable components. In the first part of the nephron, filters blood from the into the tubules.

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Urinary system

urine formation in mammals

Total solids in urine add up to around 59 grams per person. The rest of the blood about 80% does not go through the filtering portion of the kidney, but flows through the rest of the body to service the various nutritional, respiratory, and other needs that are always present. Reabsorption in the nephron may be either a passive or active process, and the specific permeability of the each part of the nephron varies considerably in terms of the amount and type of substance reabsorbed. This process is called reabsorption. Most of these substances ultimately pass out alongwith digestive wastes. Human urine is yellowish in color and variable in chemical composition, but here is a list of its primary components.

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