In this case, Spain, a fading imperial power, wished to maintain its Cuban colony, but the U. The American navy capture the Philippines and the island of Guam from Spain. My advice if you are? Now that the Americans had 'secured' the Caribbean, builders were now able to construct the much desired and anticipated Canal. Hostilities were halted on August 12, 1898. Cuba, as promised, gained its independence. They were also used as spies and agents. To demonstrate the importance of the balance of power, this paper will first examine the existing literature, including theories about power transitions and the democratic peace, to form a hypothesis about why these two democracies went to war.
The island commanded critical maritime lines of communication into the Gulf of Mexico. Republican President William McKinley, who assumed office in March 1897, likewise sought a diplomatic solution in which Spain would grant substantial autonomy to Cuba. The United States also annexed the independent state of Hawaii during the conflict. The African Americans role in the siege of Peters burg, Virginiaduring the Battle of Crater and in the Battle of Nashville were ofvital importance. In response to political pressures, President McKinley sent Congress a request for armed intervention. If time permits, students could peer evaluate their classmates for an additional grade. The Spanish-American War was caused by several events building up in Cuba.
All seemed to be going well until a Cuban agent stole a private letter written by the Spanish minister and gave it to the American press. Democracy and International Conflict: An Evaluation of the Democratic Peace Proposition. Similarly, in March 1898, Maria Cristina quietly promoted a scheme that Sagasta had proposed in 1897, to sell Cuba rather than go to war, but no party leaders agreed to back her, the military press loudly condemned the idea, and the Queen Dowager soon abandoned the plan. Again, the new American president William McKinley did not want to intervene in the war between Cuba and Spain. How do his arguments differ from those of President Cleveland? Dole Fruit company took over the islands of Hawaii rather more like a ruthless corporate business, not spoken of much. Within three months, the Spanish government sued for peace.
As the lead-up to the declaration of war indicated, both sides saw the domestic factions for peace falter under the weight of the belligerent opposition. Spain's defeat decisively turned the nation's attention away from its overseas colonial adventures, and inward upon its domestic needs. Cubans had been unhappy with Spanish rule for some time, and Americans were sympathetic. Most of the fighting occurred on Cuba and the Philippines on opposite sides of the world. In both battlegrounds, the decisive military event was the complete destruction of a Spanish naval squadron by a vastly superior U. Wikipedia explains that the seeds of the Spanish-American War were planted in the early 19th century when President James Monroe articulated the Monroe Doctrine, according to which the United States would not tolerate further European colonization of the Americas or interference in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere.
The war resulted in 460 Americans died of battle related causes, however 5200 died due to disease. The name Yellow Journalism came from this popular cartoon of the Yellow Kid, who wore a yellow gown gown while he mocked upper-class customs. In 1893, a group of Hawaii-based planters and businessmen led a coup against Queen Liliuokalani and established a new government. Consequently, it did by defeating the Spanish fleet in the Philippines as well as the fleet stationed in Cuba, which they also effectively blockaded. The United States had been desperately trying to connect both oceans in an effort to make transoceanic travel and military mobility quicker. Americans had strong naval power as well as really good battleships.
And Cuba were considered friends. On the other hand, Peceny argues that Spain did not have a democracy, but rather a democratizing country, with universal male suffrage and a strong free press in the cities, but problems with rigged domestic elections in regions dominated by rural elites. The devastation caused by the Civil War was still within living memory. The two sides signed a peace treaty in Paris on December 10. American citizens and property on the island were often caught in the middle of the violence.
In the end, the Americans had minimal casualties, while the Spanish suffered immense fatalities and damage to their naval resources Encyclopedia Britannica. Most of the fighting occurred in or near the Spanish colonial possessions of Cuba and the Philippines, nearly halfway around the world form each other. When war later arrived, he promoted an expansionist U. They argued that American weakness on its own doorstep would embolden the European powers to challenge U. The victor gained several island possessions spanning the globe and a rancorous new debate over the wisdom of imperialism. Once word of the matter got to Madrid, the Kingdom of Spain declared war on the United States on April 23, 1898.
Businessmen who did not have a major stake in Cuba were concerned that war would destabilize precarious financial markets. Literature Review and Hypothesis Scholars have explained the Spanish-American War using various theories, including the roles of changes in the balance of power, Spanish and American democracy after the sinking of the U. Through early 1898, however, those who opposed American military intervention in Cuba held the upper hand. Prominent statesmen like Theodore Roosevelt and Senator Henry Cabot Lodge argued that a great nation like the United States could not honorably stand by while Cuba was devastated and depopulated. What were the reasons for the United States becoming involved in World War I? I will also include stories from people on the battleship Maine. The President insisted on Spanish acceptance of U.
The Spanish-American War marked the end of Spain's colonial empire and the end of its rule in the Americas. They promptly sought annexation by the United States, but President Grover Cleveland rejected their requests. The Spanish-American War, an important turning point in the history of the United States, was also extremely significant to the Spanish. To conclude, discuss the Spanish American War with the students. To promote cooperation with the Cuban insurrectos and reassure European powers of U.
The size of the army was rapidly expanded from a mere 28,183 men to a humongous 250,000 men within months. Then one night the battleship blew up and sank, killing 266 men. The two sides signed a peace treaty in Paris on December 10, in which Madrid recognized Cuban independence and ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam to the United States. There were 379 American combat deaths, but more than 5,000 servicemen died of disease. What were the reasons for the Spanish American War? As the Spanish-American War shows, policymakers should not depend in the short-term on the pacifying effects of democracy to avoid war when systemic, power-based considerations have significantly reduced the likelihood of peace.