Thus, he encouraged cordial team relations, responsible and stimulating jobs, and participation of all in decision-making process. We will only endorse products or services that we believe, based on our expertise, are worthy of such endorsement. Though your assumptions about what motivates your people will likely have the biggest impact on which of these two approaches you take, your choice can also be shaped by several other factors. See for example Paul R. In contrast, Theory Y tends to be favored by organizations that have a flatter structure, and where people at the lower levels are involved in decision making and have some responsibility. Also, participative decision-making may not always be feasible or successful due to the nature of the work or the willingness of the workers.
We grouped these organizational characteristics into two sets of factors: 1. Theory Y in contrast is related to a more participative style of management where employees are actively encouraged to be involved in the decision-making processes within the organization. McGregor asked managers to examine the biases and assumptions that they bring to the table, and to construct a management style consciously. Theory Y searches and discovers the ways in which an employee can make significant contributions in an organization. Employees in this setting feel pressured and micromanaged, as they know that they need to perform consistently or risk being replaced.
They exercise their physical and mental efforts in an inherent manner in their jobs. As a consequence, Stockton managers used a less structured pattern of formal practices that left the scientists in the lab free to respond to the changing task situation. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Because each performed very different tasks the former a relatively certain manufacturing task and the latter a relatively uncertain research task , we expected, as brought out earlier, that there would have to be major differences between them in organizational characteristics if they were to perform effectively. Basic human needs are the fundamental aspects of human nature. The answers to these questions will guide their decisions about the design of the management hierarchy, the specificity of job assignments, and the utilization of rewards and control procedures. Theory X managers think that a precious few representatives of humanity have what it takes to lead, and that this sliver of humanity was born with the traits of an effective leader.
Theory X assumes that individuals are base, work-shy and constantly in need of a good prod. The Bible Adam and Eve needed to be punished Tower of Babel Heaven Carrot vs. But in many other dimensions of personality, individuals differ, and these differences will determine how a particular person achieves a sense of competence. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. Use this quiz to check your understanding and decide whether to 1 study the previous section further or 2 move on to the next section. The democratic approach of Theory Y makes people feel comfortable as a result of which they commit themselves wholeheartedly to the organization.
The crux of this toxic style of management is that it assumes a lazy, under-achieving attitude on the part of the employee. It is often the case that stern leaders are looking for push back. With the onslaught of B2B social media, and the break down of formal business approach, business is also being conducted more around Theory Y than old school Theory X. Implications of Theory X and Theory Y Quite a few organizations use Theory X today. In arguing for an approach which emphasizes the fit among task, organization, and people, we are putting to rest the question of which organizational approach—the classical or the participative—is best. Human beings bring varying patterns of needs and motives into the work organization, but one central need is to achieve a sense of competence. Managers are more authoritarian and actively intervene to get things done.
The task at Akron had already been clearly defined and that definition had, in a sense, been incorporated into the automated production flow itself. Enterprises with highly predictable tasks perform better with organizations characterized by the highly formalized procedures and management hierarchies of the classical approach. According to McGregor, neither the hard style of management based on the classical school nor the soft style of management inspired by the human relations movement were sufficient to motivate employees. He was an advocate for Theory Y management. Under this theory, the employees are highly self-motivated, and they need little encouragement from upper management to deliver quality results on a day to day basis. Therefore, management had to provide opportunities for these upper-level needs to be met in the workplace, or employees would not be satisfied or motivated in their jobs. These managers, therefore, tend to be authoritarian.
Theory Y implies that the managers should create and encourage a work environment which provides opportunities to employees to take initiative and self-direction. Thus, we can say that Theory X presents a pessimistic view of employees nature and behaviour at work, while Theory Y presents an optimistic view of the employees nature and behaviour at work. People want to avoid work and they must be continually coerced and controlled. If such a fit is achieved, both effective unit performance and a higher sense of competence motivation seem to result. Finally, human beings are assumed to be easily manipulated and controlled. They also described the type of supervision in the plant as being relatively directive. A Theory X manager assumes that employees hate work, shirk responsibilities, and require formal direction.
May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. This is more relevant in the workplace now than ever before, especially when management style is being scrutinised, and Leadership is becoming the preferred method of empowering employees, clients, colleagues and peers. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Thus, avoiding responsibility is not an inherent quality of human nature; individuals will actually seek it out under the proper conditions. As a result, they think that team members need to be prompted, or punished constantly to make sure that they complete their tasks.