The most important thing to keep in mind though is that listening is, indeed, a process, and one that requires effort. Barrier 2: Different words sometimes mean the same thing. Intelligibility or understandability depends on such things as articulation, pronunciation, and grammatical correctness. While the exchanges between judge and contestant on these shows is expected to be subjective and critical, critical listening is also important when listening to speakers that have stated or implied objectivity, such as parents, teachers, political leaders, doctors, and religious leaders. The main types of listening we will discuss are discriminative, informational, critical, and empathetic. The verbal and auditory message is coupled with to understand it.
But the major reason for my not understanding the E-mail I received from you was probably something else: the words you used and the manner in which you arranged them. Critical thinking clarifies goals, examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, accomplishes actions, and assesses conclusions. When listening, you are hearing what others are saying, and trying to understand what it means. As is noted in , people often disguise inferences as facts. This is different from our typical memory function in that information usually has to make it to long-term memory before we can call it back up to apply to a current situation. Positive listening: learning to hear what people are really saying. Short-term memory has a rapid forgetting rate and is very susceptible to interruption.
Scuka defends active listening by arguing that:. Sometimes, the problem is a physiological one; for example, the receiver has a hearing deficiency due to a congenital or inherited weakness. Further Reading from Skills You Need Learn more about the key communication skills you need to be a more effective communicator. Two barriers obstruct our understanding of verbal communication. This psychological process has a detrimental effect on listening for several reasons. In the previous examples, the same words having different meanings for different people caused only minor irritation. Studies have shown that, whereas speaking raises blood pressure, attentive listening can bring it down.
After the message has been absorbed, processed, and remembered, you can begin to sort the information into pieces. These two barriers—same words meaning different things and different words meaning the same thing—can be overcome if you realize the following fact: Meanings are not in words, meanings are in people. In addition, my respect of your needs for time and space affects how you interpret my messages. When the same words mean different things to different people, misunderstanding occurs. For further improvement, try out this , and the key strategies involved in making them more effective. Our conclusions may or may not be correct, however.
Clyde Hendrick and Susan S. For example, it may be desirable for the listener to respond immediately or to remember the message in order to respond at a later time. When you attend a political rally, a presentation given by a speaker you admire, or even a class, there are verbal and nonverbal ways of indicating your appreciation for or your disagreement with the messages or the speakers at the end of the message. These may be spoken or written. A person who receives and understands information or an instruction, and then chooses not to comply with it or to agree to it, has listened to the speaker, even though the result is not what the speaker wanted.
At school, students listen to teachers to learn new ideas. This is not a function of listening. Unfortunately, the traffic light was on the corner heading into the intersection and the man in the store had neglected to mention the grassy median that separated northbound and southbound lanes. Normally, this happens within the span of a few seconds. The listener is attentive, nonjudgmental, non-interrupting. When it is stored for future use, the response may take place later.
For example, one common problem is that instead of listening closely to what someone is saying, we often get distracted after a sentence or two and instead start to think about what we are going to say in reply or think about unrelated things. Other barriers include distractions, , vocabulary, and limited attention span. Action-oriented listeners prefer listening to well-organized and precise information and are more concerned about solving an issue than they are about supporting the speaker. Active Listening can create more deep, and positive relationship between the individuals. Listening is not to be confused with hearing. What listening strategies do you use when you talk with your daughter? Perhaps the aroma of a freshly baked pie called to mind your grandmother, who used to make great apple pies years ago.
For example, you are giving positive feedback to your instructor if at the end of class you stay behind to finish a sentence in your notes or approach the instructor to ask for clarification. A message may have been sent and received, and the receiver may have attended to the message—yet, there has been no effective communication. We communicate nonverbally through action factors, nonaction factors, and vocal factors. As constant consumers of messages, we need to be able to assess the credibility of speakers and their messages and identify various persuasive appeals and faulty logic known as fallacies , which you can learn more about in. You can browse or download additional books there. Models of processes are informative in that they help us visualize specific components, but keep in mind that they do not capture the speed, overlapping nature, or overall complexity of the actual process in action.
One of the authors of this book recalls attending a political rally for a presidential candidate at which about five thousand people were crowded into an outdoor amphitheater. And I missed the point. Ambushing occurs when one listens to someone else's argument for its weaknesses and ignore its strengths. For example, we may focus our listening on a dark part of the yard while walking the dog at night to determine if the noise we just heard presents us with any danger. Responding and remembering are indicators of listening accuracy. And the amount of information that can be retained is quite limited, though it varies somewhat with variations in the material to be retained. This stage of the listening process is the one during which the listener assesses the information they received, both qualitatively and quantitatively.