Others may be required for a medical condition and are unavoidable. While some studies clearly show the adverse outcomes of prenatal antidepressant exposure, others are less clear—and complications arise because depression itself is independently associated with negative pregnancy outcomes. Structural and functional brain integrity of fetal alcohol syndrome in nonretarded cases. This article summarizes the results of neuropsychological studies analyzing alcohol s teratogenic i. The central nervous system develops throughout pregnancy, beginning in the first month.
The internal organs, including the lungs, heart, stomach, and intestines, have formed enough that a fetus born prematurely at this point has a chance to survive outside of the womb. Environmental teratogens are agents that are man made or a product of industry. Excessive blood sugar, also seen with diabetes, may cause defects, or of the brain and spinal cord, and may also induce the release of free radicals, or damaged cells that are missing an essential molecule, which disrupt fetal development. Childhood is a temporary state of being, children are meant to learn and grow out of the confinement of adolescence, but the transition is not thrust upon us and maturity discontinued. The mass of cells has yet to attach itself to the lining of the uterus; once this attachment occurs, the next stage begins.
This rating component served to enhance the children' s attention to the words. Fetal alcohol syndrome is a group of abnormalities in babies born to mothers who consume alcohol during pregnancy. The fetus moves with more coordination, indicating more neural connections within the brain. Although marijuana does cross the placenta, and there is some possibility of harm to the fetus, the effects of alcohol are undeniable and pervasive. Offer the expectant mother information to learn more about avoiding teratogens and their effects.
Saint-Hilaire in Paris, France, experimented on eggs by subjecting them to pricking, inversion, jarring, and abnormally high or low temperatures to study the resulting malformations; he believed that certain manipulations could invoke specific deformations. Behavioral and psychosocial profiles of alcohol-exposed children. Determining the extent to which adverse outcomes are caused by antidepressant use or by depression—or a combination of both—is difficult to measure; it is also important to factor in the negative consequences of a mother going off prescription antidepressants during pregnancy, which may adversely effect her health in other ways. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 23 6 : 1070 1076, 1999. These reductions were seen predominantly in the left hemisphere and suggest immature brain activity.
Experiments on animals, such as guinea pigs, hamsters, rats, mice, rabbits, , pigs, and monkeys from the early 1970s to the early 1990s demonstrated that hyperthermia causes malformations, , abdominal wall defects, defects of the eye and palate, and limb defects. Many end up with attention and behavioral problems as well. Because blood circulating from the mother is the only way the fetus can get oxygen, this leads to hypoxia, or low flow of oxygen, and the fetus effectively suffocates. By the time the fetus reaches the sixth month of development 24 weeks , it weighs up to 1. Good parenting and teaching may help a child's behavior or academics improve, but no amount of nurturing, love or tutoring will ever make the child normal.
Wilson and Frank Clarke Fraser, Vol. Teratogens can also be found at home or the workplace. Germinal Stage The germinal stage is the stage of development that occurs from conception until 2 weeks implantation. Thalidomide causes bodily deformities as well as damage to internal organs. Auditory event-related potentials in fetal alcohol syndrome and Down s syndrome children.
The first time I read this statistic, I thought it was a mistake, that someone had left out a decimal point. The most common examples would be alcohol or tobacco use. This is one major difficulty work with parents of children who have Fetal Alcohol Syndrome presents. These findings lend additional support to the suggestion that alcohol s effect on the developing brain is not global in nature but, rather, affects specific brain regions selectively. Conversely, tests of other cognitive abilities tend to assess how well, or at what level, a person performs a skill Lezak 1995. A human being has a total of 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Lastly, we have teratogens due to disease. Because the brain develops throughout pregnancy, children could be mentally retarded due to rubella, even if they were neither deaf nor blind,because their mothers had contracted the infection after their eyes and ears had already developed. The caudate nucleus is the portion of the basal ganglia involved in cognitive functions. For example, skills such as the ability to shift from one task to another, inhibition of inappropriate behavior, and spatial memory, which are impaired in people with prenatal alcohol exposure, have been related to the basal ganglia in other populations, such as patients with Huntington s disease Mattson et al. If all goes well, a healthy baby is born after about nine months! Personally, I am usually the first, loudest and longest to complain about how high my taxes are and how much of it is wasted. Agents classified as drugs, include prescription, non-prescription and illegal.