These narratives, told by actual eyewitnesses, are considered primary sources, which are necessary in teaching historiography. Was the Klan the greatest adversary of black Americans in the period? Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. MacQueen confronted a black man, sometimes identified as Johnny Cole, in front of the courthouse. The mayhem in East St. Race Riot at East St. When officers need transportation to crime scenes, they were taken in private cars driven by volunteer citizens.
According to later testimony and notes found in the papers of Gov. Black History in Oklahoma, A Resource Book, Oklahoma City: Oklahoma City Public Schools, 1971. Copyright © 1989, 1999 I. The armory where National Guardsmen faced down angry whites has for decades been a Veterans of Foreign Wars hall. The 'spark' that touched off the riot was an incident between a white deputy and an armed black man outside the courthouse.
After allowing students the appropriate amount of time to work through analysis and discussion 20-45 minutes , students will form new groups where at least one member of each original group is represented. The theories about what happened and why are divers and often conflicting. Greenwood Cultural Center: Jewel in the Crown. By 1907, the year of statehood, Oklahoma boasted 28 all-Black towns. Copyright © 1989, 1999 I.
Hopefully, walking the streets of Greenwood will make both the unfamiliar familiar and the familiar unfamiliar, urging them to take action to change their community. Detainees were given food, water and medical attention that first day. Even by that estimate—which historians now consider much too low—the Tulsa Race Riot stood as one of the deadliest riots in U. The fighting continued until midnight when the colored men, greatly outnumbered, were forced back to their section of the town. Riot on Greenwood: The Total Destruction of Black Wall Street, 1921. The police had been warned of the possibility of a riot months before it occurred. This inevitably prompts discussions about truth and lies in history and the media's role in the riot.
How did black and white observers differ in portraying the racial divide of the period? Approximately seventy-five men got out of the cars. Paul Brown, a Tulsa physician and commanding officer of the sanitary detachment, then commandeered beds in white hospitals for the most serious cases. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1992. With today's media saturated world, it is more important than ever to teach students 21 st century literacy skills. To this day, many feel that the Tribune incited the riot.
This type of study was not really begun until the causes of the race riots in the late 1960s were sought for, in the hope of avoiding their reccurance. Those without cards were subject to arrest. This helps them see the Tulsa Race Riot's place in the larger scope of American History. Tulsa is a thriving, bustling, enormously wealthy town of between 90,000 and 100,000. It was found afterwards that the boy had stepped by accident on her foot.
Plaintext As my students come to understand the social and geographic complexities of Tulsa, before the riot, they must also learn about the events of the race riot. Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts. During the war, the Home Guard singled out and terrorized those it deemed insufficiently supportive of the war effort. Everyone had guns and the police seemed to be behind it. Douglas was also present during the events of the riot, although only as an uninvolved observer. As I tried to catch my fall, I grabbed onto the arm of Sarah Page, who then screamed. Crime and law enforcement were important issues in Tulsa.
Although no doubt well-intentioned, their presence initially added to the general chaos. Some feel reparations have not been paid because the monetary settlements represent the acceptance of blame for the riot. McCullough, who had been trying to talk to the crowd, ran for cover in a nearby hotel. There is a strong criticism against the initial rioters, both black and white, as well as the white looters. More than one witness identified officers, usually out of uniform, among the arsonists. Louis Illinois in 1917, Philadelphia in 1918, and Longview Texas , Chicago, and Omaha in 1919.