Geomorphologists and hydrologists often view streams as being part of drainage basins. They can sometimes also be found on tops of mountains. The master consequent streams emerge at the top of the dome and rediate in all directions down the slope like radial drainage pattern whereas tributary streams develop in the clefts formed due to erosion of soft beds, assume actuate shape and join the master consequent streams and thus annular drainage pattern is formed. The Chambal, Sind, Ken, Betwa, Tons and Son meet the Yamuna and the Ganga at right angles. The water relief system is an essential part of the drainage system, and it is usually a river or reservoir that can accept the excess water from the drainage network without backing up. This pattern is also found in the Girnar Hills Kathiwar, Gujarat , and Mikir Hills of Assam.
Radial Drainage Pattern : Radial drainage pattern, also known as centrifugal pattern, is formed by the streams which diverge from a central higher point in all directions. The melting of the glaciers left land with many irregularities of elevation, and a great deal of water to collect in the low points, explaining the large number of lakes which are found in Canada. This increases the gradient of the stream and therefore, gives the stream more erosive power. A parallel pattern sometimes indicates the presence of a major fault that cuts across an area of steeply folded bedrock. In Dendritic patterns see figure , so called because of their similarity to branching organic forms, are most common where rocks or sediments are flat-lying and preferential zones of structural weakness are minimal. Most of the rivers of peninsular India are consequent rivers.
It tends to develop on the flanks of a dome or a volcanic cone. It is produced where a consequent stream receives several tributaries which in turn are fed by smaller tributaries. This is probably due to the irregularities produced by glacially deposited materials, e. The use of two-way systems makes it possible to maintain throughout the growing season a close to optimum water regime for agricultural plants in the root zone of the soil. Slope and permeability of rocks very effectively control the number and extension of streams of dendritic drainage pattern. If we take the entire drainage network of Sri Lanka, it exhibits the best example of radial drainage pattern at macro-level.
This system forms on uniformly sloping surfaces, for example, rivers flowing southeast from the in Kenya. You may find this link useful for other Earth Science articles on Wikipedia as well. It includes the various streams, tributaries and sub tributaries that join to create a network of the river. With the march of time a network of streams is developed wherein streams follow the lines of weakness joints and fractures. Dendritic drainage: the , Tibet, seen from space: snow cover has melted in the valley system. For example, rivers like Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri, descending from the Western Ghats and flowing into the Bay of Bengal, are some of the consequent rivers of Peninsular India. The tributaries join their master streams in a hook-shaped bend.
Pinnate Drainage Pattern : Pinnate pattern is developed in a narrow valley flanked by steep ranges. A drainage system consists of pipelines with inlet and discharge pipes, pumps, and accessories, together with separators that cleanse the bilge water of polluting petroleum products. The geometry of a trellis drainage system is similar to that of a common garden trellis used to grow vines. Most of the rivers of the Indo-Gangetic Plains are of dendritic type. The geometry of a trellis drainage system is similar to that of a common garden trellis used to grow vines.
If the characteristics of the water relief system are unsatisfactory inadequate capacity, high water levels during periods of drainage network operation, unstable channel , the system is regulated by cleaning, straightening, deepening, and widening or narrowing the channel. The result is a stream system in which streams consist mainly of straight line segments with right angle bends and tributaries join larger streams at right angles. Radial Pattern It is a pattern characterised by out flowing rivers, away from a central point, analogous with the spokes of a wheel. If the streams are closely spaced the resultant pattern becomes trellised while rectangular pattern is formed when the streams are widely spaced. Some important drainage basins across the world This is Wiki stuff.
During the last ice age, the topsoil was scraped off, leaving mostly bare rock. There are many smaller watersheds within a river basin. The dendritic pattern is associated with the areas of homogeneous lithologies, horizontal or very gently dipping strata, flat and rolling extensive topographic surface having extremely low reliefs. In rare cases where the hydrogeological conditions are favorable, water is discharged into underground water-bearing horizons in which inverted drainage wells have been installed. .
Several streams develop on both the flanks of the ridges and join the longitudinal synclinal streams at right angle. Trellis drainage is characteristic of folded mountains, such as the in North America and in the north part of. Types of drainage patterns found in India 1. Ritter's textbook, which you can click here:. The result is a stream system in which streams consist mainly of straight line segments with right angle bends and tributaries join larger streams at right angles. Eventually the system will stabilize. The watersheds are young and are still sorting themselves out.
The Damodar, the Subarnarekha, the Chambal, the Banas and the rivers flowing at the Rewa Plateau present some good examples of superimposed drainage. It differs from the trellis pattern in so far as it is more irregular and its tributary streams are neither as long, nor parallel as in trellis drainage. On these features the drainage may exhibit a combination of radial and annular patterns. A watershed can be defined as all of the stream tributaries that flow to some location along the stream channel. This is a very reliable source of information and is used in many universities.