Further conditions have shown that the visuo-spatial scratchpad is used in recalling chess positions. Additionally, Bunge 2000 found evidence for the Central executive. The working memory model is good and is an improvement over the multi-store model. Aim: To study the role of the Central Executive in remembering chess positions by investigating the effect of generating random letter strings. Remember to describe the function of each of the 3 components. They can be classed as formal or informal and the method used will depend on exactly what you are wanting to assess.
Little research has been done to understand the central executive. It is sub-divided into two other components, the phonological store inner ear , which holds acoustically coded information, and the articulatory process inner voice , which allows for sub vocal rehearsal words you are about to say. Using your knowledge of working memory, explain why Candace forgets things. This suggests that memory is more complex than this model suggests. However, it suggests you can concentrate on two differently coded sources at once — so you can do revision by copying a mind map while listening to a podcast.
As the short-term memory has a limited capacity, if more information is taken in the older memories would be wiped out and forgotten. The final component, episodic buffer, receives input from many sources, temporarily stores this information, and then puts them together in order to construct a mental episode of what is being experienced right now. It is a two way process that endures over time. The third component, the visuo-spatial sketchpad deals with visual and spatial information coming either direct from the senses, or retrieved from long-term memory. This makes it high in ecological validity and can be applied to everyday life within the real world. There is little direct evidence for how the central executive works and what it does.
For example, Park et al. The central executive monitors and co-ordinates all other mental functions within the working memory. In other words, it codes information in images and can create and manipulate visual and spatial images. Additionally, in 2000 the episodic buffer was added by Baddeley because he realised the model needed a general. However, the brain could cope when the tasks involved separate components e. The phonological loop is assumed to be responsible for the manipulation of speech based information, whereas the visuospatial sketchpad is assumed to be responsible for manipulating visual images. Working memory is supported by dual-task studies Baddeley and Hitch, 1976.
Key Study: Baddeley and Hitch 1976 Aim: To investigate if participants can use different parts of working memory at the same time. This is useful, because if you tried to follow a conversation, one word at a time, you'd quickly get confused. While they found the latter task very easy, they found the angle description task difficult. In other words, it codes information in images and can create and manipulate visual and spatial images. The last slave system is the Episodic Buffer which was recently added in the year 2000, it is responsible for integrating information from other stores and producing new chunks of information, this also has a limited capacity.
The model has also been backed up by brain scanning which shows acoustic and visual encoding going on in different parts of the brain. The phonological store is the inner ear and contains snippets of sounds either from the outside world or recalled from long term memory. These concepts lead them to form a model which consists of three slave systems; the central executive, the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad. This deals with auditory information and preserves the order of information. It is flexible and can process information from any modality, although it does have a limited storage capacity and so can attend to a limited number if things at one time.
The capacity of the sensory register is quite large however it has a very brief duration of approximately half a second. As well as studies on brain damaged patients there is experimental evidence which supports the model and a number of brain-scan studies have found different areas in your brain activate when people carry out tasks involving different components of the working memory. For example, you notice the expression on your friend's face while they're talking and the two sources of information - their words and their expression - blend together to create an episode of memory. A psychologist argued that the central executive may be more than just one system, possibly consisting of more than one component. He found that some of these patients could repeat back far more details of a story than they could be keeping in the Phonological Loop. The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? They conducted an experiment in which participants were asked two perform two tasks at the same time - a digit span task which required them to repeat a list of numbers, and a verbal reasoning task which required them to answer true or false questions.
It is the most important component of working memory and its disfunction is often implicated in many neurological disorders. The Central Executive drives the subsidiary system. This includes all the parts of the model, the research supporting it and strengths and weaknesses. They also found that on average information decays after 18 seconds and that after 3 seconds 80% recalled correctly. They found that the longer the distraction the less likely they were to recall correctly. Reconstructive Memoryis a different approach to memory involving schemas.