Alluvial Soils: Alluvial soils are by far the largest and the most important soil group of India. They contains potash,phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane,paddy,wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. Indian scholars including Wadia 1935 , Basu 1937 , Vishwanath and Ukil 1944 , Chatterjee, Krishnan, Roychaudhary 1954 made strenuous efforts to classify soils of India. It is one of the most important natural fibres in terms of cultivation and usage. Seawater intrusions in deltas promote saline soils. Saline soil is common in the lowlands of Orissa and Kerala, while laterite soil is found in Ratnagiri District and Malabar.
Their chemical composition makes them one of the most fertile in the world. They are less fertile and need external sources like fertilizers and water supply. Temperature: 20-30 °C Rainfall: 150-300 cm Soil type: Loamy soil which is acidic in nature and rich in organic matter. Iron and Potash Nitrogen, Phosphorous and humus. It is also called the Black Cotton Soil, as cotton is the most important crop grown in this soil. Crops cultivated in this soils require supplementing the good fertilizers. It is extremely acidic in nature.
It is concentrated over Deccan Lava Tract which includes parts of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. This soil has been used for growing a variety of crops for centuries without adding fertilizers and manures, or even fallowing with little or no evidence of exhaustion. The old alluvium is found on the higher side of the river valleys, i. They are mainly found on the summits of Western Ghats at 1000 to 1500 m above mean sea level, Eastern Ghats, the Rajamahal Hills, Vindhyas, Satpuras and Malwa Plateau. Alluvium soils in India is of three types: Sandy soil, Clayey soil and Loamy soil.
During the hot dry season, the surface of this soil develops cracks. It is believed that the climatic conditions along with the parent rock material are the important factors for the formation of black soil. The colour of arid soils range from red to brown. Located in lower valleys, it is fertile. They contain considerable amounts of soluble salts and 10 — 40% of organic matter.
These are formed due weathering of metamorphic rocks. In some regions this soil has high percentage of soluble salts, but lacks in organic matter. Black Soils: These soils are made up of volcanic rocks and lava-flow. Some of the laterite soils in Kerala, Karnataka, Chota Nagpur region of Jharkhand, Orissa and Assam respond well to the application of fertilizers like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. This type of soil has high phosphate content which is similar to the alluvial soils.
Arid soils are saline in nature due to the high salt content and poor in nitrogen. Black Regur soil Deccan plateau- Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh,Tamil Nadu, Valleys of Krishna and Godavari. These all layers horizons put together form a soil profile. Geographically, black soils are spread over 5. Therefore, the area is marked by dry river courses except in the rainy season.
Mostly all the large river basins are made up of alluvial soil. South India- Tropical Variety and coastal areas hence have high sugar content and high yield. Strenuous effort is required to work on such soil in rainy season as it gets very sticky. Let us take a look at the major crops in India. This soil is especially suitable for producing plantation crops, such as tea, coffee, spices and tropical fruits in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The soil is suitable for growing.
It is a dry crop but roots need timely supply of water at maturity. Mountain soil is prevalent in the arid regions of northern India, while desert soil is found in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan. Consequently, these soils support a low density of population. As this soil can retain moisture, it is very suitable for the production of cotton even in a rain shadow area. Red Soil: The red soil occupies about 10 per cent area of India, mostly in the south-eastern part of the Peninsular India. By and large, the red soils are poor in lime, magnesia, phosphates, nitrogen and humus, but are fairly rich in potash.