He cut government spending, built the first truly public parks, charged the Church with caring for the sick and destitute and granted religious toleration to Jews and Protestants. Although it may have not been the intent of Prussia to unify Germany, it is certain that Prussia had the greatest amount of influence in German politics C. This attitude does not do him justice, as in his time Joseph stood as a crowning example of the enlightenment at work. Only their system is perfect and the Flas caused by Human Nature. Some of his most important enlightened decisions include abolishing torture and requiring the death penalty to be used in only extreme cases, advocating general education, enforcing agricultural reforms, establishing complete religious toleration, the professional construction of buildings that housed the arts, and the removal of guilds.
In the Netherlands the edict of toleration was promulgated November, 1781, and was carried out without difficulty, in spite of the opposition of the estates and the clergy. It is important to understand that these men did not begin their rein with the intent on killing millions… 563 Words 3 Pages philosophes who believed that everything should be thought of in a rational way that was based off of reason, not faith. New ideas and new practices emerge as the demographic, economic, and social patterns begin to change and reflect a new modern order. Toleration and freedom of religion were very important. Joseph, in contrast, gave the reforms an ideological edge reflecting the utilitarian theories of the Enlightenment. In 1781—82 he extended full legal freedom to serfs. My call for the enforcement of religious toleration is evident in my Toleration Patent of 1781;the Lutherans, Calvinists, and Greek Orthodox retain the privilege of worshiping privately.
But like his contemporaries, Joseph ran into trouble when older notions of monarchical control challenged his ideas. Voltaire believed in the freedom of expression, the freedom of religion, and the separation of church and state. His beloved first wife died early on and Joseph never recovered from the loss. The Church appeared to him only as the organization of one of the spheres in which the life of the people develops, and which is therefore subordinated to the whole, the State. He ended censorship of the press and theatre. He also lifted restrictions on Jews, dissolved churches dedicated to only religious life, and opened up new opportunities for other religions.
One important legacy of the Josephinian epoch is the Austrian bureaucratic state. Militarism is when a country wants to preserve the strongest and most defensive military strength. In fact, Frederick the Great was probably the most vocal supporter of the movement itself. Joseph opened access to the universities and trades for non-Catholics. He died with no sons and was succeeded by his younger brother, Leopold.
This state bureaucracy gave ordinary citizens a more active voice in political affairs. The legacy of Locke and Newton paced the way to the discovery of a new,rational world based on the intellectual understandings. Position of the Clergy in the State § 3. Of course, our funds might yet be better spent elsewhere, on furthering Mozart's own work. Joseph attempted to centralize medical care in Vienna through the construction of a single, large hospital, the famous , which opened in 1784. In Hungary and the Netherlands people were on the verge of open revolt. I think Joseph te Second was of the same mindset withthe Enlgihtenment, as were many.
The Secularization Decree issued on January 12, 1782 banned several monastic orders not involved in teaching or healing and liquidated 140 monasteries home to 1484 monks and 190 nuns. You championed the ideals of the Enlightenment and sought to unite your many peoples beneath a centralized government. Inflicted with smallpox, Isabella gave birth to a premature daughter after six months of pregnancy. The landlords, however, found their economic position threatened, and eventually reversed the policy. Montesquieu distinguished three distinct kinds of government: the republics, a political system where power rested in the hands of the people, a monarchy where middle-sized states were grounded in the principles of the law, and despotism, where the multitude is disciplined through fear as a means to inspire obedience. Pregnancy was again provoking melancholy, fears and dread in Isabella. As at many points along the boundaries, Austrian dominions were under the authority of foreign bishops, a new circumscription of the dioceses was necessary.
All of this helped to earn significant respect from the people that he governed over. The overweening character of the Emperor was obvious to , who, after their first interview in 1769, described him as ambitious, and as capable of setting the world on fire. The system of ecclesiastical legislation continued after his death, except that in the Netherlands his brother and successor Leopold was compelled to sacrifice all ecclesiastical innovations, even the edict of toleration, in order to regain his provinces. You would be right to ask these types of questions. He definitely would not relinquish his control throughout Europe without a fight. After the death of his father Joseph became, in name at least, Emperor of the Romans, King of Germany, Jerusalem, Hungary and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, Grand Prince of Transylvania, Grand Duke of Tuscany, etc, etc. These leaders and thinkers were around in the middle of absolutism and the liberal revolutions.
Almost exclusive German population b. I have long thought the same. Noble Archduke, the time has come to once more be a voice to the Enlightenment. The means was the introduction of the enlightenment to raise up new ethical and intellectual power. He abolished such traditional Catholic devotions as the Rosary and religious processions, expelled the Jesuits and seized a great deal of Church property. If the Protestants do not generally adopt this method in their States, this is because their governments lack the clarity and perceptiveness of ours, and because it is harder for Republicans to undertake such changes.
She treated religion indifferently, using church lands to help fund the state. The emoluments of a religious State fund were used for the foundation of churches, pastorates, and chaplaincies; former monks were employed in pastoral work. There was demanded of them a new oath of subjection to the temporal ruler which preceded that to the pope. It is self-evident that such an enormous revolution in all spheres met with the strongest opposition, especially from the Curia. The young was commissioned to write a funeral cantata for him, but it was not performed because of its technical difficulty. He swore never to marry again.
In particular, they believed that their power was absolute. Joseph married in October 1760, to bolster the between France and Austria. In the political sphere Joseph continued the centralization of the old Hapsburg countries; in the social sphere he attempted to raise the state of the peasants and of industry. He died with no sons and was succeeded by his younger brother,. Most of the reforms were abrogated shortly before or after Joseph's death in 1790; they were doomed to failure from the start because they tried to change too much in too short a time, and tried to radically alter the traditional customs and relationships that the villagers had long depended upon. During the coregency and after Maria Theresa's death, Joseph continued the reforms along the lines pursued by his mother. The bishops were allowed to erect their own institutions and to dispose of the order of church service.