Cell Communication and Adhesion 20: 127-138. Ernest Everett Just: Zoologist, Biologist, Physiologist, Research Scientist. In the fall of 1941, he was diagnosed with , and died shortly thereafter. He was asked to take over the biology department and teach physiology in 1910, in addition to his English teaching duties. Just enjoyed working in Europe because he did not face as much discrimination there in comparison to the U. At the age of sixteen, Just enrolled at the , college-preparatory high school.
Scientists treated him like a celebrity and encouraged him to extend his theory on the ectoplasm to other species. Just, however, became frustrated because he could not attain an appointment to a major American university. In 1940, Germany invaded France and Just was briefly imprisoned in a camp. Benson, and Jane Maienschein, 311—42. Critical to scientific reputation was his research at the Marine Biology Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, beginning in 1909. Just thus took what seemed to be the best choice available to him and accepted a teaching position at historically black in In 1907, Just first began teaching and English, fields somewhat removed from his specialty. Ernest Everett Just August 14, 1883 — October 27, 1941 was a pioneering , and science writer.
In 1929, Just traveled to , where he conducted experiments at the prestigious. His father and grandfather, Charles Sr. Although the French government requested foreigners to evacuate the country, Just remained to complete his work. Just focused his interests on marine invertebrate eggs, both in the laboratory and in their natural setting. Soon after, Just became the first head of the new Department of Zoology and gave up teaching English courses.
Quick Facts Name Ernest Everett Just Occupation , , Birth Date , Death Date , Did You Know? Graduating in 1907, he was the only magna cum laude designee, and received honors in botany and sociology as well as special honors in botany and history. Just thereby became one of only a handful of blacks who had gained the doctoral degree from a major university. Just showed all the traits of a true scholar. He discovered what is known as the fast block to polyspermy; he further elucidated the slow block, which had been discovered by Fol in the 1870s; and he showed that the adhesive properties of the cells of the early embryo are surface phenomena exquisitely dependent on developmental stage. Ernest Everett Just was born in to Charles Jr.
Q 141 C23 1977 Middleton Library J. In 1899 Just graduated with a Licentiate of Instruction, meaning that he was certified to teach in any black school in South Carolina. Career When he graduated from Dartmouth, Just faced the same problems as all black college graduates of his time: no matter how brilliant they were or how high were their grades, it was almost impossible for blacks to become faculty members at white colleges or universities. The lecture was entitled The Role of Cortical Cytoplasm in Vital Phenomena. In one set of experiments Just measured the elevation of the egg membrane at sperm contact and the time that it took for the membrane to be penetrated by a sperm. Just strove to show the importance of ectoplasm in initiation of development.
In June 1916, Just received his Ph. He was one of the authors of General Cytology, published in 1924. . The book received the 1983 and was a finalist for the 1984. Although the French government requested foreigners to evacuate the country, Just remained to complete his work. Once the fever passed he had a hard time recuperating, and his memory had been greatly affected. Since 1994 the has given an award and hosted a lecture in Just's name.
He kept his new secret to himself for a month before telling his mother because he felt she had hurt him with her unreasonable expectations. Just was born in Charleston, South Carolina, on 14 August 1883 to Charles Frazier Just Jr. Who's Who of the Colored Race : A General Biographical Dictionary of Men and Women of African Descent , Volume 1. In 1915, Just took a leave of absence from Howard to enroll in an advanced academic program at the. Kidd, Renee Kidd, and Katherine A.
In his work within marine biology, cytology and parthenogenesis, he advocated the study of whole cells under normal conditions, rather than simply breaking them apart in a laboratory setting. Malcolm 2009 Ernest Everett Just, Johannes Holtfreter, and the origin of certain concepts in embryo morphogenesis. By the time he received his doctorate from Chicago, he had already published several research articles, both as a single author and a co-author with Lillie. Conklin of Princeton University In 1924 Dr. Many of the speakers at the symposium contributed papers to a special issue of the journal Molecular Reproduction and Development dedicated to Just that was published in 2009. He is a contributor to Volume Two of Dr. Beginning in 1909, he began to conduct research as a research assistant during the summer months for Professor Frank Rattray Lillie, the second director of the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
In 1911, he helped a group of students there form the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity and became its first honorary member. In 2013, an international symposium honoring Just was held at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn in Naples, Italy, where Just had worked starting in 1929. He remained adamant that cytoplasm was the key to development and not the nucleus. Augustus Low, editor, Virgil A. Molecular Reproduction and Development 76 11 : 966—974. He was unostentatious and was modest in his personality. Just then took what seemed to be the best choices available to him and was appointed to a teaching position at historically-black Howard University in Washington, D.