Keywords—Air Pollution, Climatic, Historical Monuments I. Acid rain occurs when these gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form various acidic compounds. The reaction dissolves the material, leading to permanent damage. Close examination of the grooves on the columns shows glittery flakes of mica and sometimes grains of pyrite. It changes water chemistry in ways that can affect algae, fish, aquatic plants, frogs, salamanders, and other aquatic creatures. The roots are damaged by acidic rainfall, causing the growth of the plant to be stunted, or even in its death. However, nature is a victim where the consequences are much harder to repair then the infrastructure.
Some lichens are also especially sensitive to acid rain. Professional essay writing services Are you searching for? Effects on animals and birds. All of these factors must be weighed when deciding which energy source to use today and which to invest in for tomorrow. Acid rains cause heavy damages to the concrete surfaces and paint finishes on building surfaces. Further complicating the situation is the seismically-active nature of the region, as earthquakes would have a far greater effect on marble constructions that have slowly transformed into gypsum than with unaltered marble. Ironically, industrialization threatens to disable the basic environment of human race, posing what may be the greatest health hazard of all time.
Hadrian's Arch at the Acropolis of Athens If we do these things, we are giving our children and future generations a chance to see these monuments that have been around for ages and should be around for many years to come. Causes and Effects of Air Pollution. Reducing power consumption will reduce the amount of coal burnt to produce electricity, and thus reduce the amount of pollution. Pollution effects are not confined to the environment. Governments need to sit up and take notice, and do much more than what they are already doing. Pure water has a pH level of 7. Forests are affected directly as well as indirectly by acid rain.
Some types of energy are more expensive to produce than others, which means that not all Americans can afford all types of energy. Loss of material has resulted in a weakening of the stone. All these acid rain solutions will be pointless unless people are informed and educated about the ill-effects and harms of acid rain. When acid rain falls on historical monuments of limestone or marble , a chemical reaction takes place which has a corrosive effect on these structures. Because there are so many changes, it takes many years for ecosystems to recover from acid deposition, even after emissions are reduced and the rain becomes normal again.
Red Spruce Hardiness and Freezing Injury Susceptibility. Experimental research was done to examine the effects of increased acidity in stream on ecological species. All sources of energy have environmental costs as well as benefits. The works of many are seen everywhere we go, from the average home to a New York skyscraper. Reduce use of electric power. The threat is in the risk of losing these irreplaceable structures forever.
The of these microbes are changed in shape so they no longer function by the acid. This is due to reactions in the liquid water droplets. Animals and birds, like waterfowl or beavers, which depended on the water for food sources or as a habitat, also begin to die. Scientists estimate that 10 to 45 percent of the nitrogen produced by various human activities that reaches estuaries and coastal ecosystems is transported and deposited via the atmosphere. It is a major issue of concern and a threat causing irreplaceable loss of structures. As acid rain flows through soils in a watershed, aluminum is released from soils into the lakes and streams located in that watershed.
Both the lower pH and higher aluminium concentrations in surface water that occur as a result of acid rain can cause damage to fish and other aquatic animals. Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, i. Most European countries and Canada have signed the treaties. To achieve this goal at the lowest cost to society, the program employs both regulatory and market based approaches for controlling air pollution. When leaves are frequently exposed to acid rain they are stripped off the essential nutrients present in them. If they use coal, ask what methods they use to contain, if not eliminate, the problem of sulphur emissions.
Acid rain has eliminated insect life and some fish species, including the in some lakes, streams, and creeks in geographically sensitive areas, such as the Adirondack Mountains of the United States. However, dispersal from these taller stacks causes pollutants to be carried farther, causing widespread ecological damage. The effect of animal excrements on the buildings is inevitable as it facades them alongside wind and dust. Other impacts can have permanent consequences. Together, biological organisms and the environment in which they live are called an ecosystem. These acids then disperse over large areas because of wind patterns and fall back to the ground as acid rain or other forms of precipitation. The reaction dissolves the material, leading to permanent damage.
Likewise, changes in sun radiation can temporarily raise temperatures on the surface of monuments, mimicking the effects of global warming on a specific site. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 56 2011 A Study of the Damages to Historical Monuments due to Climatic Factors and Air Pollution and Offering Solutions Shoureshe Kanani, Hassan Zandi Abstract— Historical monuments as architectural heritage are, economically and culturally, considered one of the key aspects for modern communities. Use hammer, chisel, and sand paper if weight is more than the requirement. As such, man-made acid deposition began becoming a significant issue during the and was first discovered by a Scottish chemist, Robert Angus Smith, in 1852. Prevailing winds blow the compounds that cause both wet and dry acid deposition across state and national borders, and sometimes over hundreds of miles. Some microbes are unable to tolerate changes to low pH and are killed.