E At first many displayed great apathy towards the Reformers, attaching to the new movement no importance; its chiefs were thus given a longer to spread their doctrines. Where did they all begin? For Brad Gregory, this reduces intellectual history to a sub-discipline fixated on language and discourse, with no time to assign causal significance to ideas or beliefs—if anything, these are merely things to be explained away by reference to underlying material or psychological conditions. Opposition to Catholicism also led to acts of violence, such as the burning of a convent in Boston in 1834 and the anti-Catholic riots in Philadelphia in 1844. He did, however, reject the Catholic teaching of in favour of what has come to be called. Arbitrary decrees were issued by the magistrates concerning ecclesiastical organization; the councillors who remained true to the Catholic Faith were expelled from the council, and Catholic services were forbidden in the city. Moreover, in the south and southeast, which remained prevailingly Catholic, it found more or less numerous supporters. After Calvinism had established itself in Geneva, its influence grew rapidly in French reform circles.
In England also the civil power constituted itself supreme judge in matters of faith, and laid the foundation for further arbitrary religious innovations. B Advantage was also taken of the divisions existing in many places between the and. Autonomy from Rome usually implied subjection to the French crown, particularly during the reign of , who sought to extend the so-called of France when Rome resisted. The of the country about two-fifths of the population were subjected to suppression. The abolition of religious institutions which acted as a curb on , , , , attracted the lascivious and frivolous.
Love of luxury was soon associated with the revival of the art and literature of Graeco-Roman paganism. The most famous was the Society of Jesus, commonly known as the Jesuits, founded by St. Bloody and incessant feuds had sadly demoralized monastic life, and rendered church government extremely difficult, while the rough barons had intruded their children into a large number of the livings, abbacies, and. Old Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911.
The northern kingdoms: Denmark, Norway and Sweden The Reformation found an early entrance into , then united to , and. Gradually a regrettable worldliness manifested itself in many high. The great applause which Luther received on his first appearance, both in humanistic circles and among some theologians and some of the earnest-minded laity, was due to dissatisfaction with the existing abuses. The king constituted himself supreme authority in religious matters, and severed the country from. Their aim was to reclaim the moral high ground, and the superiority of the Holy Mother Church, in the wake of the Protestant challenge.
The result was favorable to the Catholics; most of the representatives of the estates present declared against the Reformation, and writings of Luther and Zwingli were prohibited. The Theatines were founded by and the bishop of Chieti Theate , Gian Pietro Carafa, who later became Pope reigned 1555—59 ; both through the program of the order and through his pontificate, the correction of abuses in the church assumed primary importance. Such men as and Antonio de Dominis were found but seldom. Prince Radziwill and favoured , and the was translated into Polish in accordance with the views of this party in 1563. Farley, Archbishop of New York.
In every land in which it found ingress, the Reformation was the of indescribable suffering among the people; it occasioned civil which lasted decades with all their horrors and devastations; the people were oppressed and enslaved; countless treasures of art and priceless were destroyed; between members of the same land and race the seed of discord was sown. Spread of the Reformation in the various countries Germany and German Switzerland The Reformation was inaugurated in when affixed his celebrated theses to the doors of the church at , 31 October, 1517. In the Papal Curia political interests and a worldly life were often prominent. The reform councils of the fifteenth century, instead of improving the situation, weakened still more the highest authority by reason of their anti-papal tendencies and measures. Several prelates and the universities offered resistance, which was overcome by force. Expelled from Geneva, he returned in 1541, and began there the final establishment of his religious organization.
Be that as it may, the document did clarify Roman Catholic teaching at a time when it was being threatened on all sides. The Counter-Reformation served to solidify that many Protestants were opposed to, such as the authority of the and the veneration of , and eliminated many of the abuses and problems that had initially inspired the Reformation, such as the sale of for the remission of. However, the failure to convert indigenous Chinese and an interruption in the arrival of missionaries from Europe led to the virtual disappearance of the faith by the end of the 14th century. No Catholic writer has described the whole movement with adequate fullness. Historical periods, it will be remembered, are never sharply cut off, during the actual course of events, from what goes before and comes after, as they are described in books; for history in the concrete is always continuous. Later, many of their number returned to Catholicism, although there still remained numerous adherents of Calvinism in France. This is especially so in terms of the numbers of noblemen and other wealthy individuals who were attracted to the theology of Luther and Calvin.
The princes formed the Alliance of Torgau on 4 May, 1526, for their common defence. Whatever unhappy conditions existed were largely due to civil and profane influences or to the exercise of authority by ecclesiastics in civil spheres; they did not obtain everywhere with equal intensity, nor did they always occur simultaneously in the same country. The negotiations at the Diet of Augsburg 1530 , at which the estates rejecting the Catholic faith elaborated their creed Augsburg Confession , showed that the restoration of religious unity was not to be effected. French history is the hardest to follow. Many educated Catholics had wanted change — for example, Erasmus and Luther himself, and they were willing to recognise faults within the Papacy.
Ecclesiastical affairs were now reorganized on the basis of the new teachings; henceforth the is ever more clearly the supreme judge in purely religious matters, and completely disregards any independent authority. Since then Cologne has been a tower of strength to the of North-Western. In the innumerable writings and pamphlets intended for the people the Reformers made it their frequent endeavor to excite the basest human instincts. The parlements in most cases took energetic measures against the innovators, although in certain quarters the latter found protectors especially Margaret of Valois, sister of and wife of Henry d'Albret, King of. He won numerous followers, and his community spread in many lands. Pascal and are notable literary figures who expressed Roman Catholic thought and piety through their works.
These reforms and growth did much to maintain Catholicism as the dominant Christian tradition. He inspired all about him with his own high views, and new life and strength were soon seen in all parts of the administration. Indeed, Albert V of 1550-79 seemed almost the only prince who could make head against the. Luther thereby challenged one of the central sacraments of the Catholic Church, one of its central miracles, and thereby one of the ways that human beings can achieve grace with God, or salvation. He also instituted a new Code of Canon Law 1983 and canonized an unprecedented number of saints. The , an agency established in 1542 to combat , was more successful in controlling doctrine and practice than similar bodies in those countries where Protestant princes had more power than the Roman Catholic Church. This community of Brethren spread in many lands.